SA, NSKK & SS Dolken-site

De SA Dolk

 

Sturmabteilung (SA)

Stond wel deftig zo'n dolkje toch?

 

De SA (Sturmabteilung) was de paramilitaire vleugel van Die Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP). 
De oorsprong van de SA stamt uit 1921 met een Hofbraehaus bierfeest in Munchen. 
Een deel van het partijlidmaatschap was oud-soldaat en de meeste waren leden van de paramilitaire vrijkorpsen die werden gebruikt om de Beierse Sovjetrepubliek in Munchen 1919 te funderen.

 

Zo werden ze dus meestal gedragen.

 


De SA "Storm Troopers", ook wel "bruine hemden" door de kleur van hun uniform, werden aanvankelijk georganiseerd om als een beschermende macht te dienen op nazi-bijeenkomsten onder leiding van Ernst Röhm (1931-1934) 
De SA breidde al snel uit van een handvol mannen tot een gigantische organisatie in 1934 tot meer dan 3 miljoen leden. 
De SS "Schutzstaffel" en NSKK "Nationalsozialistisches Kraftfahrerkorps" waren organische takken van de SA op dat moment.



Nacht van de lange messen (30 juni-03 juli 1934) 
(Nacht der lange Messer)

SS leider Heinrich Himmler en de oprichter van Gestapo, Hermann Göring bewerkte SD leider Reinhard Heydrich om bewijsmateriaal te verstrekken. Om zodoende Hitler ervan te overtuigen dat zijn oude kameraad uit de vroege dagen van de SA Stabschef Ernst Röhm en andere hoge SA leiders een tweede revolutie beramen en van plan waren een complot tegen Hitler en de nazi-partij te smeden. 
Rohm had echter nooit intenties of plannen voor een complot tegen Hitler. Wel had hij altijd de drang om het leger samen te voegen met de SA en was de Reicshwehr zeer bezorgd over dat scenario, omdat dit haar zou bedreigen in hun bestaan.


Wat Himmler, Göring en Heydrich in gedachten hadden was het sterk verminderen van de macht van de SA, in die tijd met meer dan 3 miljoen leden. 
Himmler wilde ook de SS onafhankelijk maken van alle andere organisaties en deze uit te breiden als de meest krachtige en vreesde organisatie in Duitsland, zonder lastige confrontaties en bedreigingen van de krachtige SA.

Eind juni 1934, was Hitler uiteindelijk overtuigd om Röhm op te offeren na vele pogingen tot overreding van Himmler en Göring.

Met de Reichswehr werd ook afgesproken om de zuivering door te voeren en zij beloofden hun trouw aan Hitler. 
Hitler beloofde in ruil voor zowel het leger als de marine de steun aan hen uit te breiden.


Röhm en andere SA-leiders werden gearresteerd in de vroege ochtend van 30 juni 1934 in de badplaats Bad Wiessee pension Hanselbauer niet ver van Munchen door mannen van "Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler" onder leiding van commandant Sepp Dietrich. 
De slapende SA leiders in Bad Wiessee werden verrast en nooit echt begrepen ze waar ze beschuldigd van werden, maar het zwarte korps werd besteld en ze deden hun plicht, dus er was geen genade te verwachten. 
Sommige SA leiders werden ter plaatse vermoord, terwijl anderen werden gedood tussen 1 juli-2 juli .

Röhm werd doodgeschoten op zondag 1 juli in zijn cel in Stadelheim gevangenis, München door SS-Brigadeführer (Dachau commandant) Theodore Eicke en zijn adjudant SS-Sturmbannführer Michael Lippert. Uiteindelijk legden SS mannen op 2 juli 1934 in opdracht van Hitler een revlver in Röhms cel. Men hoopte dat Röhm hierdoor zelfmoord zou plegen. Tevergeefs en Lippert vuurde twee schoten, Röhm viel op zijn rug en stotterde, mein Fürhrer mein Fürhrer! Eicke vervolgens maakte het af met een kogel in zijn borst. 
De zuivering eindigde in juli 2.

Officieel 77 tot 83 hoge leiders, waaronder Röhm werden vermoord op 30 juni-02 juli 1934 in de zogenaamde "Nacht van de lange messen" (Nacht der langen Messer). 
De echte aantallen mannen die in heel Duitsland werden gedood in de operatie waren waarschijnlijk meer dan vijfhonderd, een enorme aantal waren niet-SA-leden.

Röhm werd vervangen door Viktor Lutze maar de organisatie verloor zijn richting en leiderschap. Het kwam verder door de oorlog, maar werd nooit meer de machtige organisatie welke het ooit was geweest. De SA werd teruggebracht van meer dan 3 miljoen naar iets meer dan 1 miljoen en de organisatie was niet meer gewapend. De beweging was nog wel vertegenwoordigd op partijdagen e.d. maar werd meer en meer een ontmoetingsclub voor veteranen. Na de herintroductie van de dienstplicht in 1935 verkozen bovendien de meeste mannen het leger boven de SA.


Lutze werd gedood in een auto-ongeluk in mei 1943 en werd vervangen door Wilhelm Schepmann.

 

SA-leiders:

- Emil Maurice (1920-1921) 
- Hans Ulrich Klintzsche (1921-1923) 
- Hermann Göring (1923) 
- (Geen) (1923-1925) 
- Franz Pfeffer von Salomon (1926-1930) 
- Adolf Hitler (1930-1931) 
- Ernst Röhm (1931-1934) 
- Viktor Lutze (1934-1943) 
- Wilhelm Scheppmann (1943-1945)


SA (Dolk Beschrijving)

 De standaard SA dienst Dagger (1933) 
Deze dolk was de eerste standaard uniform dolk goedgekeurd voor dragen in het Derde Rijk en werd vormgegeven naar de 16 e eeuwse Duitse jacht dolk bekend als een "Holbein" dolk (zie onder).

SA 


De SA dolk was gewoon een onderdeel van het uniform en werd in enorme aantallen uitgegeven.

De vroege gemaakt SA dolken (1933-1935) waren kwalitatief hoogwaardige producten en het gevest en schede metalen fittingen zijn gemaakt van nikkel zilver. 
Later werden de industriële ondernemingen gedwongen om naar goedkopere materialen over te gaan als vernikkeld of verchroomd zink spuitgieten. 
Het cross-grained blad had het geëtste motto "Alles für Deutschland" op de voorzijde en het maker merk dicht bij crossguard (pareerstang) aan de achterzijde.

 De grepen waren gemaakt van verschillende houtsoorten zoals, peer, walnoot, esdoorn of eiken en bruin gebeitst. 
De nikkelen adelaar en krans met de swastika waren netjes ingevoegd in het midden van de grip. 
De kenmerk insigne van de SA initialen was ingevoegd als een cirkel bovenaan de houten handgreep vlakbij bovenste dwarsbalk stang.

De gebogen onderste en bovenste dwarsbalk was van nikkel, de bovenste dwarsbalk werd geborgd door een massieve nikkelen moer in de schroefdraad stang bovenaan de dolk. 
Het SA gruppe district stempel is opgenomen op de achterzijde van de onderste pareerstang. 
De plaat metalen schede werd afgewerkt in een bruine oxide afwerking beter bekend als geanodiseerd. 
Lengte 37 cm. 
Er waren meer dan 240 verschillende makers die de SA dolk produceerden.


Het midden van de periode (1936-1937) "Overgangs periode"
De SA dolk had nikkel-zilver-of vernikkelde pareerstangen . 
De greep arend werd gemaakt van nikkel-zilver of aluminium. 

Lemmet was gemarkeerd met RZM code. (Overgangs) 
Schede was geanodiseerd of gelakt en schede aankleding was nieuwzilver of vernikkeld.

De late periode (1938-1942)
De SA dolk had vernikkelde pareerstangen. 
De greep arend werd gemaakt van aluminium. 
Lemmet is gemarkeerd met RZM code. 
Schede werd geschilderd en schede beslag was vernikkeld.

NSKK (Nationalsozialistisches Kraftfahrerkorps)
Het verschil tussen de SA en de NSKK dolk is dat alle NSKK scheden dienden te worden zwart geschilderd in mei (1936) als een aanwijzing dat NSKK gescheiden werd van de SA en was uitgegroeid tot een aparte formatie van de nazi-partij NSDAP

 

 


De SA Röhm eer dolk (1934)

Deze dolk is identiek aan de standaard SA dienst dolk 1933 behalve de geëtste opdracht van de SA leider Ernst Röhm op de achterzijde blade met zinsnede "In Herzlicher kamaradschaft, Ernst Röhm". 
Verscheidene producenten van Röhm daggers brachten het makers merk terug naar een kleiner merk dat  dichter bij de pareerstang werd gezet om meer ruimte te maken voor de inscriptie.

Hitler en Röhm 

Na Röhms moord bekend als "De nacht van de lange messen" in 30 juni-02 juli 1934, werd op de radio aangekondigt door de Gruppenfürer Von Obernitz, hoofd van de SA in Franken, dat de Röhm toewijding tekst moest worden verwijderd uit alle SA Röhm eer dolken binnen dertig dagen. Of de dolken moesten worden vernietigd als alternatief .

Sommige SA troepen verwijderden de naam van Ernst Röhm of meer delen van de tekst "Gedeeltelijke Röhm", terwijl anderen de gehele tekst verwijderden van de "Ground Röhm".

Geschatte exemplaren gemaakt: ten minste 125.960

 

SA Basics

SA dagger collecting is a fascinating hobby however is can be a minefield for the beginner. This article
is for the beginner. I am only speaking in generalities here and advanced collectors will have to look
elsewhere, however I believe that this hobby has given me so much I would like to give something
back in return. Hopefully these pointers can save you a great deal of grief and get you up the learning
curve much more quickly. Much of what I have to say can be applied to SS daggers as well.

BLADE
That's what we collect. EDGED weapons. If the blade is garbage the dagger will never amount to much.
First off, look for complete blades. Retipped , sharpened and shortened blades dramatically reduce
value and should be avoided. Even nicks and scratches affect value. Dark mottoes are more desirable
than light mottoes. Maker marked blades are the most desirable, transitionals (blades having both maker marks and RZM marks) are the second most desirable, and RZM marked blades are the least desirable.

Look for crossgraining. Crossgraining is the light lines one sees that run horizontally across the blade.
These are a result of the final grind in the factory and are almost impossible to fake. The lower down the
blade towards the tip you have crossgrain the better. Though wear and cleaning you lose crossgraining and
the loss in my experience, starts at the tip and tends to move up the blade towards the handle. Look at
many blades and familiarize yourself with a proper blade. Too much shine indicates polishing or buffing.
A buffed blade exhibits a high gloss and very light motto or even a gloss where darkening should be. Crossgraining is removed in the buffing. Another thing that is a dead giveaway that a blade has been
buffed is to look closely at the motto. Remember that the motto is actually stepped down from the blade.
Now think about how the buffing wheel falls down off one side of the "ledge" along the inside of the letter
then rubs hard against the other ledge. This can result in a dark edge on one side of the lettering that
can appear as a shadow. Hard to see in most pics but when you see it you will know. Keep in mind that people never buff a mint blade. They only buff a blade that's pitted or damaged in some way. If you see
some evidence of pitting and the blade is too shiny now you know why! "Graying", as it's called, is a
condition that affects many daggers and more often RZM blades in my experience. Graying, looks like splotches on the blade where the steel has lost is reflective qualities and looks more gray than like the
bright finish usually seen. This is caused by a change in the steel chemistry over time and is NOT skin
deep. I don't know how many times I've read, "just a small bit of pitting will clean right up" or " a bit of
graying that will buff out". Folks if it would, "polish or 'buff" right out trust me, the seller would do it
themselves! Don't buy a dagger thinking you will be able to clean up the blade. More often than not that
is not possible for the average collector.

CROSSGUARDS
Crossguards fall into 3 categories: solid nickel, plated and occasionally aluminum.

Solid nickel are the most desirable. They stand the test of time and never deteriorate. They will dull
and develop a patina but will never lose their integrity. They were the first crossguards made. Typically
they are stamped with a "gau" mark. This mark denoted the original issue location. The gau mark is
usually found on the back of the dagger above the maker mark. Each side of the crossguard has 2 deep grooves usually these are darkened. Occasionally you will also find these early crossguards stamped
on the very bottom (facing the blade) with a small single digit number; this is called a bench number and denotes who originally assembled the dagger. Other markings can be found as well. Serial numbers,
unit markings and even names or dedications can be found. These are so numerous that I can not go
into them all in this forum, but more often than not you will see these on these the earliest of
crossguards. These photos illustrate examples solid nickle guards with: gau marks, an assembly number,
and a serialized crossguard.

Plated Guards came out later in the production of daggers as industry was forced to economize on
materials. These guards were made from die cast zinc or pot metal. A copper flash was applied,
(this allows the final plating to adhere to the base metal) and then a chrome or nickel-plate on top of that.
The trouble with plating is that it must be done properly or it will, over time, bubble as the metal
underneath corrodes. Today's die casters have this down, but in the 30's this was still an issue. Many
plated fittings now display lifting or corrosion. Lifting can be seen as a paper-thin layer of flexible metal
raising up off the casting. Underneath that lifting often is seen the corrosion. This plating can also be
removed by cleaning and buffing the fittings too much. Keep in mind this plating is only a few tenths thick
once it's gone, its' gone. My advice is don't mess with them. Most times these fittings are unmarked on
the exterior. These plated crossguards exhibit deterioration that can be seen on plated parts.

Aluminum Guards were another substitute for the early nickel fittings. These were used later in
production. These guards are far lighter than the nickel ones but have the advantage of not having the
corrosion or lifting problems of plated fittings. Aluminum tends to oxidize quickly and within weeks of
cleaning will revert back to a dull finish. Again typically these are less frequently marked on the exterior.

POMMEL NUT
Look to see if the nut shows scratches or signs of wear. This wear is due to people disassembling,
and often, without the proper tools. The more an item in disassembled the more chance it has of being
messed with and or damaged. In time the threads wear and have increased chances of being
stripped. A pristine nut that has never been turned is a rarity today and desirable. Look for build up
of patina on the nut flats this is a good indicator of an unturned nut. Materials vary from nickel,
aluminum or plated. The important thing being that the material remains consistent with the rest of
the fittings. Rarely would any dagger leave the factory with mismatched fittings, and when you see
one it should be viewed with suspicion. As a side bar, don't over tighten your nuts on these daggers.
Wood moves. If you do not allow for that movement ,eventually the wood will give. These nuts need
not be any more than finger tight. Just ask the SS collector who reefed down on his pommel nut in
mid winter only to wake up one humid June morning to see his prize possession chipped!

HANDLE
Handles were made from hardwood never softwood. Makers tended towards some generalities so in
time one can see that the handle is typical to that maker. They were roughed out, sanded down,
stained, and then the inserts fit with care. Typically early daggers tended to have softer lines than
the RZM types indicating more time and care had been taken in finishing. RZM daggers sometimes
had the aluminum or pot metal eagles. Original handles were never made of anything other than
wood. A plastic handle is a dead giveaway of a fake.


SCABBARD
There are 2 common types of scabbards anodized and painted.

The earliest examples are anodized. Again these early scabbards are the most desired by
collectors. Anodized scabbards exhibit the best workmanship. They always came with solid nickel
fittings. Over the anodizing was lacquer. This lacquer often wears off and sometimes loose flakes
can be rubbed off even with a soft cloth. Where the lacquer remains you have a shiny finish and
where only anodizing exists, it dulls to a matte finish. Many anodized scabbards have lost all
their original lacquer finish. As the anodizing wears off, you may see right down to bare metal or rust.
The painted scabbard was adopted after the anodized scabbards, I suspect to speed and simplify manufacturing. These were first made with solid nickel fittings and later adopted the plated fittings.
Typically the paint was evenly and proffesionally applied. After drying the scabbard was
assembled. As with the earlier type scabbards, paint wore and chipped off from wear and in some
cases the paint is worn down resulting in rust and corrosion. Look closely at the item, dents
scratches and splits in the ball all depreciate value. Missing and or buggered screws can be an
indication the scabbard was messed with. I always look at the edges of the scabbard fitting. Marks
there can indicate that someone has removed the fitting from the shell, often to the detriment of
the dagger. Again the scabbard fitting material should be consistent with the crossguard and
nut material. If you see mismatched hues from the scabbard to the dagger, look more
closely, this may be evidence of switched parts.
Below are examples of anodized then painted scabbards.

FITS
To most experienced collectors this stuff is obvious, but to me, as a beginning collector, I had to
learn this from scratch. These lessons literally cost me hundreds of dollars. What I have to say is to
the best of my knowledge. There are exceptions to every rule and every piece you buy has to be
evaluated on its' own merit. Most of what I have to say deals with purchasing daggers online. I am
located in a rural setting and rarely get the opportunity to buy from dealers in person. Hopefully
this can be a starting place for the beginner.
Handle to crossguard fits Whenever 2 materials are brought together there is natural movement
as a result of exposure to time, air, humidity and temperature cycles. Wood tends to shrink over
time as compared to metal, which is stable. As a result we see the grips' ends shrinking away from the
tips of the crossguard. The wood tends to shrink more with the grain than against the grain. As a result
you will often see small gaps (up to 2mm) where the tips of the handle once met the ends of the
crossguards. Closer fits are desirable. Gaps of more than 1mm should cause you to look more
closely at the dagger. Typically the shrinkage is uniform from side to side so a gap of .5mm on one
side and a gap of 2mm on the other side should be a red flag. Variable shrinkage could be caused by
a change in the wood grain however the shrinkage typically will not vary by more than 25%. Look
closely at any patina between the grip and the guards. Untouched patina is a great indicator that
a dagger is original.
Eagle and roundel fits Look closely at the fits. I look to see that the wood surrounding the inlays
is smooth. Cracks often have developed over time that run lengthwise perhaps from the roundel up,
or at the ends of the eagle. Although not desirable, these are the natural result of time and improper
protection against humidity and temperature cycling. Red flags would be chipping around the inlays
consistent with someone removing them. These inlays are almost impossible to remove without
damaging the adjacent wood. The harder and closer the grain the more susceptible to chipping. The
ebony on SS daggers is notorious for chipping. You will see the odd dagger that has been denazified.
This was often done by digging at the eagle with a sharp instrument. Evidence of this is easy to detect.
I have seen shrinking of the wood push the eagle or part of the eagle out. A wing slightly lifted out
from the surface of the wood is sometimes seen and although not desirable can happen. By the way,
don't worry, the inlays are pinned in-place and don't fall out easily. Just look closely at the eagle. You
will often see wear in the high spots, this is a good indication that it has not been replaced. In use
the wearer often held the dagger from moving as can be seen from many period photos.

Roundels or insignias vary only slightly from dagger to dagger. I have seen the hue vary however
they are all exactly 9mm in diameter. Sometimes the exposed enamel on these will flake off or darken so look
close.

Crossguard to blade fits Again look for a close fit. Seeing light or obvious gaps between the blade
and the crossguard is a sign to look closer. Again, I look for patina that is in this area. This can be a
sign that the dagger blade is original to the crossguards. Though not always possible, if the dagger
can be seen disassembled, does the blade exhibit any signs of recent filing to better fit the crossguard?
As a note, I particularly look at this fit in early maker marked daggers. RZM daggers will often display
less than perfect fits. A poorly fit blade on early dagger is a red flag. Unfortunately, the blade is the
area most susceptible to "trick" photography. The blade can look dramatically different depending on
its' angle to the camera. Always look for shots that are straight on to the blade. Angle shots and
shots looking down the blade always portray a darker than actual motto. The below photos
demonsrate how the same blade can look very different.

If the dagger is disassembled look for billet marks, (small lines up either side of the tang where the
blade was squeezed while working it) they should always be present. Buffer pads are small pieces of
cloth or leather that are sometimes cut to the oval shape of the scabbard and put between the blade
and the lower crossguard. These are another red flag. They tend to cover up poor fits and rarely were
used on period SA's or SS daggers.

Scabbard to crossguard fitLook closely at the fit of the crossguard to the top or the scabbard.
The radii should be the same. If you see larger gaps on the ends than in the center or vise versa,
be suspicious. The space between the 2 components should remain consistent.
Pictures on left demonstrate good fit and on right evidence of a parts dagger.

SIGNS OF AUTHENTICITY

Hanging test Look at the dagger hanging from the scabbard ring. It should hang at the correct angle.
If the angle looks wrong the scabbard could have been replaced or the lead weight could be missing.

Wear TestAll wear should be consistent. If the handle is all banged up and the scabbard mint
likely the scabbards is not original to the piece. The only exception I've seen to this is a mint blade
on an otherwise worn dagger. Perhaps the owner never removed the blade. In the case I'm thinking
about, the Vet. left his dagger in and attic for 40 years deteriorating the exterior while leaving the
sheathed blade protected from the ravages of time. All I'm saying is that inconsistent wear is a
sign to look closer.

Buying the correct configuration

Original daggers should have the correct configuration. In general look for the following:

Maker Marked daggers: anodized scabbards nickel fittings and crossguards
Gau stamps Highest quality

Transitional pieces Anodized or painted scabbards nickel or plated fittings and crossguards
(but they must be consistent and not mismatched)

Good quality RZM pieces Plated or aluminum crossguards-less frequently nickel. Nickel, pot
metal or aluminum eagles. Painted scabbards. Poorer fits. Have an RZM SA that you would like to determine the manufacturer of? Here's a list of manufacturers sorted by RZM code .

I'm not saying that other configurations don't exist rather I'm saying the above are the most common.

 

INTERNET PURCHASES

 


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Commercial termsInternet purchases have inherent risk. You don't know the person; there is
no relationship. The only basis you have to complete a sale is a Web Site, User ID, or an email
address. I have completed lots of online transactions and here are a few do's and don'ts. Yes, you will
miss out on the odd deal but in general following these guidelines will save you grief.

DO

*
-Start collecting by purchasing from certified dealers who are reputable and honest.
*
-Attempt to use an online payment service that allow charge-backs. Paypal allows you to
charge-back the seller in the case of non-receipt. A MO is only slightly safer than sending cash
*
-Ask for an inspection period.
*
-Check feedback from other auctions, if questionable, check with the other party to see if the
issue was resolved, but keep in mind that there are always transactions that go bad, even for the
best of sellers.
*
-Proceed very cautiously if you get offers to purchase "outside the auction site".
*
-Ask for more pictures
*
-Search the collector forums with the seller's name, often problem sellers have a history.
*
-Post on the collector forums if you have questions- other collectors are your best source of info.
Polite questions from beginners are always answered.
*
-Ask a collector moderator to help you out if you run into transactional problems. Never
underestimate the power of these forums.
*
-Ask for a respected person to inspect the item or act as an escrow agent for large transactions
if you are not sure- (Be sure to pay them for their services)
*
-Treat your seller respectfully and honestly. Relationships are required to build a truly
great collection.

DON'T
*
-Bid on 'Private Auctions" -often it's the seller who's hiding something.
*
-Jump on a ridiculously low "Buy it Now" price. -Look before you leap.
*
-Purchase from former east block countries. Save yourself a lot of heartache. If you, do insist
on an escrow service!
*
-Don't pretend you know it all, there are few absolutes in our hobby and even seasoned collectors are occasionally surprised.